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DEFAMED (Pg. 2)
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(See also: Vaccinate Haiti? No - Stop using Haiti as a human laboratory and Defamed! -Page 1, - Page 2, Pg. 3, Pg. 4, Pg. 5 and, Pg. 6 )

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Empire State Medical Association - Statement Denouncing the controversial Woroby HIV study bien widely circulated by the mainstream media
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Association of Haitian Physicians Abroad Respond to the Worobey's Theory
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HLLN Recommended Links on the Origins of Aids/HIV
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HLLN's appeal - Counter the new attack on Haiti and Africa that has been launched under the guise of "science"
(Pg. 1)
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Racism Masquerades as Science
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Haiti Defamed
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Possible Media Bias
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The River by Edward Hooper
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Haitian HIV Link Criticized, Hardbeatnews.com, Nov. 2, 2007

(Pg. 4)
*
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AIDS study spurs Haitian outrage
BY FRED TASKER AND JACQUELINE CHARLES, Oct. 31, 2007, Miami Herald

Dessalines Is Rising!!
Ayisyen: You Are Not Alone!



 

The Two Most Common Storylines about Haiti and Haitians ********************
Media Lies and Real Haiti News
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U.S. Patterns in Haiti
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Jean Jacques Dessalines

 






To subscribe, write to erzilidanto@yahoo.com
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zilibuttonCarnegie Hall
Video Clip
No other national
group in the world
sends more money
than Haitians living
in the Diaspora
Red Sea- audio

The Red Sea


Ezili Dantò's master Haitian dance class (Video clip)

zilibuttonEzili's Dantò's
Haitian & West African Dance Troop
Clip one - Clip two


So Much Like Here- Jazzoetry CD audio clip

Ezili Danto's

Witnessing
to Self

zilibutton
Update on
Site Soley

RBM Video Reel

Haitian
immigrants
Angry with
Boat sinking
A group of Haitian migrants arrive in a bus after being repatriated from the nearby Turks and Caicos Islands, in Cap-Haitien, northern Haiti, Thursday, May 10, 2007. They were part of the survivors of a sailing vessel crowded with Haitian migrants that overturned Friday, May 4 in moonlit waters a half-mile from shore in shark-infested waters. Haitian migrants claim a Turks and Caicos naval vessel rammed their crowded sailboat twice before it capsized. (AP Photo/Ariana Cubillos)

Dessalines' Law
and Ideals

Breaking Sea Chains


Little Girl
in the Yellow
Sunday Dress

Anba Dlo, Nan Ginen
Ezili Danto's Art-With-The-Ancestors Workshops - See, Red, Black & Moonlight series or Haitian-West African

Clip one -Clip two
ance performance
zilibutton In a series of articles written for the October 17, 2006 bicentennial commemoration of the life and works of Dessalines, I wrote for HLLN that: "Haiti's liberator and founding father, General Jean Jacques Dessalines, said, "I Want the Assets of the Country to be Equitably Divided" and for that he was assassinated by the Mullato sons of France. That was the first coup d'etat, the Haitian holocaust - organized exclusion of the masses, misery, poverty and the impunity of the economic elite - continues (with Feb. 29, 2004 marking the 33rd coup d'etat). Haiti's peoples continue to resist the return of despots, tyrants and enslavers who wage war on the poor majority and Black, contain-them-in poverty through neocolonialism' debts, "free trade" and foreign "investments." These neocolonial tyrants refuse to allow an equitable division of wealth, excluding the majority in Haiti from sharing in the country's wealth and assets." (See also, Kanga Mundele: Our mission to live free or die trying, Another Haitian Independence Day under occupation; The Legacy of Impunity of One Sector-Who killed Dessalines?; The Legacy of Impunity:The Neoconlonialist inciting political instability is the problem. Haiti is underdeveloped in crime, corruption, violence, compared to other nations, all, by Marguerite 'Ezili Dantò' Laurent
     
No other national group in the world sends more money than Haitians living in the Diaspora
 
 
 
 
 







 

Guerre Psychologique ou guerre biologique? (in French) by Ben Dupuy, Haiti Progres, July 8, 1983 (DEFAMED, pg. 3)
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The Errors of Professor Worobey (in French)
Weibert Arthus, AlterPresse, Oct. 31, 2007

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HIV/AIDS orvinated in US, not Africa or Haiti - (The Gay Experiment That Started AIDS In America by Alan Cantwell, M.D, December 05, 2005)

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Key HIV strain 'came from Haiti'

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HLLN Recommended Links on the Origins of Aids/HIV

Youtube - The Origin of Aids, Part1 and Part 2 and Part 3, et al..

The Origin of Aids, 90minutes documentary in English http://davidmcqueen.blogspot.com/2007/01/origin-of-aids.html ; and in French (L'origine du SIDA )

Dr. William D. Hamilton of Oxford University, speaks about Edward Hooper's "The River: A Journey Back to the Source of HIV and AID"
http://www.margueritelaurent.com/pressclips/defamed1.html#river

Origin of Aids, Canadian Broadcasting Channel Documentary

http://www.cbc.ca/documentaries/originofaids/hooper.html

The Origin of Aids by Tom Curtis, Rolling Stone, March 1992
http://www.whale.to/vaccines/curtis.htm

Edward Hooper
http://www.aidsorigins.com/

Suppressed Science
http://www.suppressedscience.net/aids.html

Racism Masquerades as Science by Jafrikayiti, Nov. 1, 2007

Aids and Accusations: Haiti and the Geography by Paul Farmer
http://www.ucpress.edu/books/sale/pages/2728001.html

Rogue virus in the vaccine: Early polio vaccine harbored virus now feared to cause cancer in humans

Quest for the Origin of AIDS

HIV/AIDS orvinated in US, not Africa or Haiti - (The Gay Experiment That Started AIDS In America by Alan Cantwell, M.D, December 05, 2005)
http://www.africaspeaks.com/arti
cles/2005/0512.html


Commentary: Haiti, the international scapegoat! by Jean H. Charles, Nov. 23, 2007

"Does the scientific "theory" that HIV came to North America from Haiti stem from underlying attitudes of racism and ethnocentrism in the United States rather than from hard evidence? Award-winning author and anthropologist-physician Paul Farmer answers with this, the first full-length ethnographic study of AIDS in a poor society. First published in 1992 this new edition has been updated and a new preface added." (Aids and Accusations: Haiti and the Geography of blame by Paul Farmer.)

The burden of proof and the origin of acquired immune deficiency syndrome by Brian Martin, September 2000

AID, AIDS, Experiments, Reparations and Red Herrings…
By Jafrikayiti, June 2001
http://www.windowsonhaiti.com/jafrik03.shtml

Guerre Psychologique ou guerre biologique? (in French)
By Ben Dupuy, Haiti Progres, July 8, 1983 | http://www.margueritelaurent.com/pressclips/defamed3.html#dupuy

The errors of professor Worobey (in French)
Haïti/Propagation du Sida : Les erreurs du professeur Michael Worobey, Soumis par Weibert Arthus*, AlterPresse le 31 octobre 2007
http://www.alterpresse.org/spip.php?article6579

*Weibert Arthus - journaliste, doctorant en Histoire contemporaine des relations internationales (University Paris, Sorbonne)

The Uses of Haiti (1994, updated 2005) by Paul Farmer

AIDS: The WHO Vaccine Conspiracy & Monkey Business
by ALAN CANTWELL, M.D.
http://www.conspiracyplanet.com/channel.cfm?channelid=34&contentid=1377

Reverend Jeremiah Wright Is Right About Man-Made AIDS By Alan Cantwell, MD
http://www.rense.com/general81/sdf.htm

AIDS and Africa: Racism vs. Science
http://www.aliveandwell.org/html/africa/related_aids_racism.html


“AIDS was supposed to destroy Uganda. So why is it flourishing again? Billions will be spent on powerful anti-AIDS drugs for the third world, but Uganda reversed its epidemic without them…” (AIDS Sunset Gives Way to New Dawn in Uganda
By Neville Hodgkinson)
http://www.aliveandwell.org/html/africa/related_aids_uganda.html


“The possibility of a monkey origin of the AIDS virus cohabits easily with racist notions that Africans are evolutionarily closer to sub-human primates.”
( Excerpted from the book AIDS and Africa: A Case of Racism vs. Science?
AIDS and Africa: Racism vs. Science By Rosalind Harrison-Chirimuuta and Richard Chirimuuta*) http://www.aliveandwell.org/html/africa/related_aids_racism.html

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Current Related topic -
Foreigner sexually abusing defenseless and poor Haitians:


Sex scandal in Haiti hits U.N. mission: Bush's US/Canada/France intervention to "save" Haiti for obscene exploitation by the world's rich elites leaves small Haitian girls and boys more defenseless, more brutalized by the white savoirs' "rescue" : Girls as young as 13 forced to have sex with the UN "savoirs" for as little as $1

110 SRI LANKAN SOLDIERS ACCUSED OF SEXUAL ABUSES IN HAITI

Swiss accused pedophile arrested in Haiti


UN Peacekeepers in Haiti abhorrent violation of the fundamental of care:
sexual abuse and engaging in child prostitution

http://www.margueritelaurent.com/pressclips/festival.html#sexexploitation

Sri Lankan peacekeepers in Haiti sex scandal
, Nov. 2, 2007, AFP
http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jv1Dg19
IGQjacW3GTAozDzgm43iQ

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See also: Vaccinate Haiti? No - Stop using Haiti as a human laboratory and Defamed! --Page 1, - Page 2, Pg. 3, Pg. 4, Pg. 5 and, Pg. 6

- 1.2 Million Merck Vaccines Recalled 12 Dec 2007: More than a million doses of a common Merck & Co. vaccine given to babies as young as 2 months were being recalled Wednesday because of contamination risks, but the top U.S. health official said it was not a health threat. [?] The recall covers roughly 1.2 million doses of the vaccine against Hib, which causes meningitis, pneumonia and other serious infections, and a combination vaccine for Hib and hepatitis B...http://www.sacbee.com/840/story/562997.html

- Must see video on how white scientists brought man-made Aids virus to Africa: According to Merck hepatitis B vaccine maker Maurice Hillerman PhD --- he ADMITS on this video: "I brought African green monkeys in (from Africa) --- I didn't know we were IMPORTING AIDS VIRUS AT THE TIME"
(i.e. between 1970-1974)...and LAUGHING heard on the sound track!!!
http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=327_1195303011

- Watch: It shows Dr. Maurice HIllerman a Merck Immunologist.. actually saying
that he's responsible for bringing Aids to America..
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tM8gk8C69M&feature (Please forward these clips (link) to everyone you know who thinks vaccines are "safe and effective.")

Original article is at: http://southafrica.indymedia.org/news/2003/07/4270.php

La Conspiration Du Silence - Genocide in Haiti by mass vaccination while Haiti
is occupied by Dessalines' enemies and other such white savior missionaries/
mercenaries... http://www.margueritelaurent.com/pressclips/defamed6.html#silence


Rewriting History: USAID's former mission director tries to give the US credit for the lowering of diseases in Haiti when Aristide was in office

http://www.margueritelaurent.com/pressclips/USfueled.html#usaid



Single Most Recommended Book:
The River: A Journey Back to the Source of HIV and AID

Biologist William D. Hamilton of Oxford University , widely respected as “one of the greatest evolutionary theorists since Darwin ” had this to say about The River:

“Every time two people put their heads together, Trugh suffers; when many put their heads together, she suffers more. A major point of this book is that when the heads are great ones and have owners with much to lose (employed perhaps in giant companies or government departments) Truth can be made so ill that we should all shiver. Hooper deserves great praise for having so tenaciously carred through his investigation and for bringing to light so many more facts affecting the main questions. He has in fact given us the best history of the epidemic.

“Everyone should read this book, both for its story and in order to think hard on all that it implies – al this before Truth, more white and sick than with AIDS, quietly rejoins us through another door.”

It has been widely accepted that HIV jumped from African chimpanzees to humans. What Hooper does is trace how this jump took place. And it is his meticulously presented assertion that this transfer took place “as a result of American and European medical interventions in Africa during the 1950’s – and specifically the administration of more than one million doses of an experimental oral polio vaccine, some batches of which may have been manufactured from chimp kidneys. Hooper’s extensive investigations and interviews in America , Europe, and Africa lead to some remarkable revelations which include previously unpublished details abour where the vaccines were given and the locations of the earliest traces of HIV and AIDS, as revealed by archival blood and tissue samples.The maps of vaccinations and early AIDS cases are extraordinarily similar.

At the heart of this book is a riveting detective story with frightening implications – including the continued reluctance of the medical and scientific communities to properly investigate the hypotheses that their activities may have inadvertently given birth to the most devastating infectious disease in human history”.

****************
http://www.documentary-film.net/search/watch-now.php?&ref=5
The above link will take you to an online video to view The Origin of
AIDS" documentary. It is partially in English and 131 minutes long.
Broadband is required.

See also
http://www.documentary-film.net/search/video-listings.php?e=5


********************

****************

POSSIBLE MEDIA Bias

POSSIBLE MEDIA bias may be claimed with respect to the recent wide "news" dissemination of the Worobey/Gilbert controversial claims on Haiti and the origin of HIV in the U.S. Because mostly all said articles FAILED to note, AS CUSTOMARY in such cases, that the conclusions of the study is on record as being disputed by other doctors working in the field.


Folks,

Below is an excerpt of a report discussing the origin of HIV and the first cases of AIDs. The article basically outlines the official line on how Africa gave the world HIV/AIDs. Nonetheless, it's relevant, as far as we're concerned, only because it notes another doctor challenged and contested the Worobey claims, even perhaps, at the time the study was presented. http://www.avert.org/origins.htm

The subject article notes that a Haitian delegate, contested the findings, at the March 2007 CROI conference, where apparently Worobey perhaps first presented his study to a wide audience. There may be others who also contested his conclusions at that point, but it seems clear, that this particular objection was certainly made BEFORE the week of October 25-31, 2007 when the mainstream media's took hold of the conclusion of the study as "news" on Haiti!!!

It may be instructive to find out who the Haitian delegate was at the March 2007 CROI conference, and get a copy, for our review and circulation, of this challenge and any others issued before this (primarily on October 29/30, 2007) breaking "news" came out. ( See excerpt of relevant article below entitled "Why is Haiti Significant?").

The mainstream news outlets who featured this as "breaking news" on Oct. 29 and October 30, 2007, simply failed to mention how farfetched Worobey's hypothesis is. Or, that there was documented (in March, 2007, eight months ago when the study was delivered in Los Angeles) and other, on record noted and countering objections, from far more noteworthy and accomplished scientists: i.e. William D. Hamilton of Oxford University, Dr. Paul Farmer of Harvard) to these rehashed conjectures.


The cavalier attitude displayed by the media, with such an inflammatory pronouncement on Haiti, is questionable.

Worobey's farfetched conclusion, based on the speculation, that one "unmarried Haitian immigrant" amongst the relatively few,* who travelled as teachers, doctors, agronomists, administrators, et al., to the Congo and other parts of Africa, (and definitely not in the "high risk" categories of folks - ie. people engaged in survival or commercial sex work, injection drug use, multiple unprotected sexual encounters with HIV-infected persons, etc.) and who were not welcomed back to Haiti by Duvalier and who mostly all settled elsewhere later on, not Haiti.

But, we are to take as "serious science" that one amongst this group of Haitians, one who lived in the Congo, a Congo* then teeming with European white settlers from every walk of life including embassy workers, military, charitable workers, and/or colonial mercenaries there in the Congo chopping off the hands of the local mine workers, in their Euro/US greed for the Congo's diamonds, precious gems and resources; we are to believe that, of all the hundreds of thousands of Europeans in Africa in this 1960s time period, one single Haitian, made it back to Haiti from the Congo, where said Haitian had been unlucky enough, AMONGST ALL ON EARTH to have been the only one to contract said "African" virus.

Then what?

Then, despite Papa Doc Duvalier's tonton macoutes and US-supported Cold War terror, oppression against Haiti's masses and the then intellectual classes denouncing Duvalier's dictatorship; then, sick and all, said unlucky-of-all-sentient-beings-on-planet-earth-Haitian, somehow (convenietntly?) transmuted - while in Haiti? Of course! - the disease picked up in the Congo into what? Oh yeah, the "key strain."

That is, transmuted - in his body, all by himself maybe? - the "African virus" into the appropriate version of subtype B of HIV. (See, Key HIV strain 'came from Haiti' | BBC News http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7068574.stm)
.

Once this dastardly biological act? miracle? was done, said Haitian next traveled to the U.S. (by plane?, boat? - there were no real Haitian boat people back then, spaceship then?) where this Haitian immigrant INFECTED the U.S. population with the HIV virus, and by extension, the world!!!

What explains the unquestioned ringing of the bell, as if this is legitimate BREAKING NEWS that was promulgated (Oct. 30th) so certainly, by the power-media? Other than the ugliness of racism, hate and ignorance?

If anyone has any information on the Haitian delegate at the March 2007 CROI conference in Los Angeles, or, have a copy of the delegate's report/statement, please let us know.

Men anpil chay pa lou

Ezili Danto, Oct. 31, 2007
(revised Nov. 1, 2007)
Haitian Lawyers Leadership Network ("HLLN")

******
http://www.avert.org/origins.htm
"Why is Haiti significant?

The AIDS epidemic in Haiti first came to light in the early 1980s, at around the same time that cases in the USA were being uncovered. Following the discovery of a number of Haitians with Kaposi's Sarcoma and other AIDS-related conditions, medical journals and books began to claim that AIDS had come from Haiti, and that Haitians were responsible for the AIDS epidemic in the United States.

These claims, which were often founded on dubious evidence, fuelled pre-existing racism in the US and many Haitians suffered severe discrimination and stigmatisation as a result. A large number of Haitian immigrants living in the US lost their jobs and were evicted from their homes as Haitians were added to homosexuals, haemophiliacs and heroin users to make the 'Four-H Club' of groups at high risk of AIDS.14

The emotionally- charged culture of blame and prejudice that surrounded HIV and AIDS in the early years meant that it soon became politically difficult to present epidemiological findings in a neutral and objective way. For many years the link between Haiti and the US epidemic was therefore dropped as a subject.

In March 2007 however, it returned to the public eye at the Fourteenth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Los Angeles.

A group of international scientists presented data based on complex genetic analysis of 122 early samples of HIV-1, group M, subtype B (the most common strain found in the USA and in Haiti) showing that the strain had probably been brought to Haiti from Africa by a single person in around 1966; a time when many Haitians would have been returning from working in the Congo.15

Genetic analysis then showed that subtype B spread slowly from person to person on the island, before being transferred to the US, again probably by a single individual, at some point between 1969 and 1972. A paper published in October 2007 by Worobey and colleagues gave a 99.7% certainty that HIV subtype B originated in Haiti before passing to the US.16

It is possible that HIV had entered the US several times before subtype B took a firm hold (which would explain the infection of the St. Louis teenager in the early to mid-1960s), but it was the late 1960s / early 1970s transfer that is believed to be responsible for the widespread epidemic seen in the US today.

Once the virus had established itself in the gay community, in would have spread fairly rapidly (anal intercourse carries a very high transmission risk), with transmission occurring within and between the US and Haiti, and internationally, until the original route taken by the virus was largely obscured.

Dr Michael Worobey, lead researcher in the study, claimed that his data was not intended to place any blame on Haiti, or on Central Africans, and stressed that none of the people who first transmitted HIV would have been aware they were infected. His work still received strong protests from one Haitian delegate at the CROI conference however, demonstrating the extent to which tracing HIV’s origins remains a politically sensitive exercise.

* For complete article, go to: http://www.avert.org/origins.htm


See also: HIV's path out of Africa: Haiti, the US then the world
,
Public release date: 25-Oct-2007
Contact: Mari N. Jensen
mnjensen@email.arizona.edu
520-626-9635
University of Arizona
Contact: Michael Worobey
520-626-3456
worobey@email.arizona.edu

Notes:
Challenges on Record:

l. William D. Hamilton, Oxford University and famous evolutionary biologist (on Edward Hooper's "River").

2. Dr. Paul Farmer, Harvard University
AIDS and Accusations: Haiti and the Geography of Blame

*Congo - See, UN complicity in assassination of Patrice Lumumba: Interview with Ludo De Witte-Assassination of Price Lumumba, KPFA, Africa Turner, Walter Turner, Nov. 27, 2006 http://www.margueritelaurent.com/press
clips/ notforAfricans.html#dewitte

*from 5,000 to 10,000

Haiti: The International scapegoat! By Jean H. Charles, Caribbean Net News, November 23, 2007

Media Exceptions:
Some of the few exceptions to the uncritical mainstream bladder on HIV and Haiti:


- Haitian HIV Link Criticized, Hardbeatnews.com, Nov. 2, 2007

- AIDS study spurs Haitian outrage
BY FRED TASKER AND JACQUELINE CHARLES, Oct. 31, 2007, Miami Herald


En Memoire Des Arawaks et Tainos D'Haiti,
*
- Dessalines three Ideals
http://www.margueritelaurent.com/pressclips/dessalines.html#3
- "...In the sixteenth century, Europeans insisted that syphylis originated in Haiti, and was brought back by Columbus' sailors. (the converse now appears to have been the case.)" Excerpted from: The Uses of Haiti (1994, updated 2005) --by Paul Farmer
http://www.2bnb4.com/did-columbus-bring-syphylis-to-europe.htm http://www.margueritelaurent.com/pressclips/defamed.html#farmer

See also: ‘Over 101 Sri Lankan peacekeepers in Haiti charged with sexually abusing Haitian population, including minor children', November 3, 2007

Coincidence or Intentional? - Is there an International plan to depopulate
and exterminate a large portion of Haiti's population?

by Ezili Dantò, November 4, 2006
http://www.margueritelaurent.com/pressclips
/conspiracy.html#neocolon


**************


Empire State Medical Association Denounces Incomplete Research Claims made by Dr. Gilbert and Dr. Worobey on “HIV Coming from Haiti”


Empire State Medical Association Denounces Incomplete Research Claims made by Dr. Gilbert and Dr. Worobey on “HIV Coming from Haiti” (www.nyesma.org)

The Empire State Medical Association is highly concerned about the claims by Michael Worobey that “AIDS virus invaded the United States in about 1969 from Haiti, carried most likely by a single infected immigrant who set the stage for it to sweep the world in a tragic epidemic”.

We reject the comments that “researchers think an unknown single infected
Haitian immigrant arrived in a large city like Miami or New York, and the
virus circulated for years -- first in the U.S. population and then to other
nations.”

Gilbert and Worobey, analyzed samples from only five of these Haitian
immigrants dating from 1982 and 1983. They also looked at genetic data from 117 more early AIDS patients from around the world. This genetic analysis allowed them to calibrate the molecular clock of the strain of HIV that has spread most widely, and calculated when it arrived first in Haiti from Africa and then in the United States. The researchers virtually ruled out the possibility that HIV had come directly to the United States from Africa, setting a 99.8 percent probability that Haiti was the steppingstone.

For Haiti, the history of HIV/AIDS represents stigma, discrimination, and racism. In 1982, scientists at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) incorrectly inferred that Haitians were at increased for acquiring HIV as a racial group (1). HIV/AIDS therefore became known as the “4H Disease”, affecting homosexuals, heroin addicts, hemophiliacs, and Haitians. This resulted in unprecedented national stigmatization and devastating economic, social, and psychological consequences, decimating the tourist industry in this island nation. As reported at the time: “Haiti has been made an international pariah by AIDS. Boycotted by tourists and investors, it has lost millions of dollars and thousands of jobs at a time when half the work force is jobless. Even exports are being shunned by some (2).” In 1985, when it became clear that Haitians share the same risk factors as other groups, the CDC dropped the Haitian association, but it was too late. HIV and Haiti were inextricably linked in the minds of the general public. Haiti’s economy has never recovered.

Gilbert et al once again link HIV and Haiti, stating: “Subtype B likely moved from Africa to Haiti in or around 1966” and then on to the U.S. Their entire hypothesis is based on virus isolated from five Haitian-Americans who were living in Miami in 1982-83. No other information is provided except that they “entered the U.S. after 1975 and progressed to AIDS by 1981 and hence were presumably infected with HIV-1 before entering the U.S.” A host of questions remain. What were their risk activities? Where had they traveled? Did they have sex with Americans in Haiti? We do know that the average time of progression of HIV infection to AIDS and to death in the pre-ART era was 4.5 and 7.4 years, respectively – these intervals are consistent with the five subjects acquiring the infection in the U.S, which limits the validity of their findings (3).

The authors go on to state: “The HIV-1 epidemic in Haiti exhibits a greater range of viral genetic diversity that the rest of the world’s subtype B combined”.

The authors have not studied the virus in Haiti. Where are the data to support this claim?

They also state that their aim is to combine phylogenetic, molecular evolutionary, historical, and epidemiological perspectives in an attempt to reconstruct the history of the subtype B pandemic. However, epidemiology studies conducted in Haiti do not support the author’s hypothesis. If the virus was in circulation in Haiti since 1966, there would not have been a much higher male: female ratio in the early years of the epidemic (80% of the first Haitian patients were male in the early 1980’s) which rapidly generalized as they spread the virus to their female partners (4,5). In addition, reviews of large samples of banked blood from the 1970’s failed to yield a single case of HIV and thousands of autopsies did not diagnose an AIDS defining illness until 1978 (6).

Furthermore, only one case of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was noted by Haitian dermatologists prior to 1979 (7). KS is easily recognizable and it would not have been missed by Haitian dermatologists for over a decade.

Haiti has overcome enormous obstacles and mounted one of the world’s most successful responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Yet, the authors restate prejudices advanced two decades ago in the publication of Pitchenik et al (8):
“Haitians in Haiti and elsewhere are at risk of AIDS”. People of all ethnicities in every country are at risk. Scientists need to be very responsible in their assertions, lest they do great harm.

The American public must also be informed that European scientists infected many Africans with contaminated polio vaccine that was cultured with Chimpanzee kidneys. This is a fact. This theory as an etiology of AIDS was outlined in 1999 in the book, The River: A Journey Back to the Source of HIV and AID and the Canadian documentary entitled the “Origin of AIDS”. Hooper mapped the locations where Koprowski's CHAT vaccine was given and where the earliest cases of AIDS were discovered. It showed a dramatic geographical correlation. Text from an interview with Mr. Hooper on the book and movie are as follows:

Edward Hooper: "The earliest cases of AIDS occurred in central Africa, in the same regions where Koprowski's vaccine was given to over a million people in 1957-1960. I think that what we have here is the route whereby this chimpanzee virus arrived in humans."Hooper claims that kidneys from chimpanzees infected with SIV were used to grow the polio virus during Dr. Koprowski's 1950's vaccination campaign. Archival footage confirms that a large number of chimpanzees were housed at Camp Lindi, located upstream from Koprowski's medical laboratory in Stanleyville in the former Belgian Congo.

But in his book Hooper provided evidence to show what happened to the four hundred chimps brought to the camp and killed in the space of two years.

Camp assistant Christophe Bayelo, cared for the chimps at Lindi. He told Hooper that the staff, including Paul Osterrieth, the lab's head of virology, systemically harvested organs from the camp's chimps.

Joseph Limbaya, a nurse at the camp remembers that he was ordered to kill two or three chimps a day. Joseph Limbaya: "We didn't remove the flesh, but the two organs located at the back, the two balls called the kidneys."

The camp workers claimed that some of the animals were dissected alive. Hooper argued that the main reason for doing so would have been to harvest living tissue cultures needed to make the polio vaccine.

Paul Osterrieth and Hilary Koprowski steadfastly denied that chimpanzee tissue was used to grow the polio virus in the Congo.

Before his death Pierre Doupagne, the chief technician at the laboratory of Stanleyville admitted to Edward Hooper that he made sterile tissue culture from chimps for Paul Osterrieth.

Edward Hooper: "The person with overall responsibility for this entire sequence of events is Dr. Koprowski. Without his approval, this sequence of events would not have taken place."

Bill Hamilton
, a renowned evolutionary biologist, felt that Hooper's theory had
merit. In an interview with CNN he explained why he felt it was necessary to
take a closer look.

Bill Hamilton: "I feel it's not only the origin of AIDS that is in question here, it is the conduct of science towards the hypothesis, which has been one of paranoid rejection. I think I would not exaggerate to describe it as medical science's worst hated hypothesis."

Hamilton traveled to Africa to collect chimpanzee samples but contracted
malaria and died in March 2000. Before his death he asked the Royal Society of
Scientists in London to stage a debate on the 'hunter vs. the vaccine' theory
of the origin of AIDS.

In September 2000 the world's top AIDS specialists assembled at London's Royal Society for a conference on the origins of AIDS. It was meant to give Edward Hooper a chance to present his evidence to the scientific community.

From the opening of the conference arguments were launched against Hooper's theory. Then there was a surprise announcement. Samples of Kopowski's CHAT vaccine had been located and tested and found not to have any trace of HIV, SIV or chimp DNA.

This announcement was viewed by the scientific community as a decisive statement against Hooper's theory. Articles were published in Nature and Science concluded that Hooper's hypothesis was not viable.

Dr. Cecil Fox: "They (the scientists), once again, claimed to have laid to rest the idea that HIV could have come from Polio vaccine and I don't think they did a better job than they had done before. There are still great gaping holes in their story."

However Hooper pointed out that the samples were discovered in the U.S. and not used in the Congo and that no vaccines still exist from that time.

In 2003 Michael Worobey returned to the Congo to complete the studies attempted by Bill Hamilton years ago. In a scientific paper published in April 2004 they concluded that the SIV found in the chimpanzees near Stanleyville was not the strain that crossed over to humans to cause HIV years ago. The authors stated that this provided proof evidence against the polio vaccine theory.

In response, Edward Hooper claims that the chimps used at Camp Lindi came from a large geographical area then tested by Worobey. And he maintians, this means that the researchers cannot claim to have put the issue to rest. He plans to publish a book this year in support his theory.

Although Koprowski insists that his polio vaccine could not have sparked the
AIDS epidemic, he was one of the key scientists to convince the U.S. government to make polio vaccines with synthetic cells in 1997 and coincidentally the earliest cases of HIV developed in the areas he worked in European French colonial Africa.

More information is available at
(http://www.cbc.ca/documentaries/originofaids/hooper.html).

References:

1. Centers for Disease Control. Opportunistic Infections and Kaposi’s
sarcoma among Haitians in the United States. MMWR. 1982; 31:353-354, 360-361.

2. Chaze W. In Haiti, a view of life at the bottom. U.S. News and World
Report. 1983;95(18):41-42.

3. Deschamps MM, Fitzgerald DW, Pape JW, Johnson WD. HIV infection in
Haiti: Natural history and disease progression. AIDS. 2000;14(16):2515-2521.

4. Pape JW, Liautaud B, Thomas F, et al. Characteristics of the acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Haiti. N Engl J Med. 1983;309(16):945-50.

5. Pape JW, Liautaud B, Thomas F, et al. The acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome in Haiti. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103(5):674-678.

6. Pape JW, Johnson WD. Epidemiology of AIDS in the Caribbean. In
Bailleire’s Clinical Tropical Medicine and Communicable Diseases, AIDS and
HIV Infection in the Tropics. 1988, London: Harcourt Brace.

7. Liautaud B, Laroche C, Duvivier J, Pean-Guichard C. Kaposi’s Sarcoma in
Haiti: unknown reservoir or recent appearance? Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1983;
(3):213-9.

8. Pitchenik AE, Fischl MA, Dickinson et al. Opportunistic infections and
Kaposi’s sarcoma among Haitians: Evidence of a new acquired immunodeficiency
state. Ann Intern Med. 1983; 98(3):277-84.

9. Origin of Aids, Canadian Broadcasting Channel Documentary
(http://www.cbc.ca/documentaries/originofaids/hooper.html).

Daniel Laroche MD
Eye Physician and Surgeon, Glaucoma Specialist
President, Advanced Eyecare of New York
http://www.advancedeyecareny.com/

215-43 Jamaica Avenue
Queens Village, NY 11428
Tel- 718-217-0424, Fax 718-217-0459

49 West 127th Street
Harlem, NY 10027
Tel- 212-663-0473, Fax 917-493-1010

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http://www.nmanet.org/

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Association of Haitian Physicians Abroad Respond to the Worobey theory, November 7, 2007

The Association of Haitian Physicians Abroad (Association des Médecins Haïtiens à l’Etranger or AMHE) has reviewed the recent article by Thomas Gilbert and colleagues, reporting a phylogenetic analysis of archival blood samples collected from five early recognized AIDS patients at Jackson Memorial Hospital in 1982-1983. The study authors identify these five patients as Haitians who left Haiti after 1975. This article has several important limitations and does not provide any scientific breakthrough.

Before a detailed critique of this paper, AMHE would like to point at the following remarks in methodological biases that may explain some of the study findings. First, the bias in selection of early samples of HIV among Haitians is quite obvious. The investigators chose a convenient sample under the unproven assumption that all these Haitian immigrants acquired HIV infection in Haiti. They obviously ignore that the clinical course of these patients perfectly fits the natural history of HIV/AIDS. No culturally-sensitive epidemiological investigation has ever been conducted of these initial Haitian immigrants presenting with HIV infection at Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami.

Therefore, the assertion that they contracted HIV in Haiti is presumptuous and not based on facts. Moreover, no archival samples from Haiti are included in the phylogenetic analysis and this constitutes a serious flaw. We do not know either how many samples of the pandemic clade B might have come from Haitian subjects, which raises the prospect of misclassification.

Second, the authors do not adequately report on some of their methods and results. For example, they do not specify clearly the number of sequences for which there was uncertainty as to which subtype they belonged to; neither do they try to replicate their results by sequencing other HIV genes. While computer simulation techniques and phylogenetic analyses are important to our understanding of biological evolution, the application of these methods with such serious methodological limitations does not prove unequivocally the origin of the pandemic clade B subtype in the United States.

Because these findings lack scientific validation, we need to raise questions about the motives of the authors; their paper not only does not advance our knowledge of the HIV epidemic but it continues with a dangerous precedent of victimizing an ethnic group with flimsy data. Needless to say that such half truths have been very harmful to the country and its people. The hasty classification of Haitians as a group at risk for HIV more than 20 years ago can be considered as a cloud hanging over good scientific practice. It destroyed the tourist industry in Haiti; its citizens have since been suffering from the social stigmata of presumed carriers of dangerous germs even though that classification was finally removed by the CDC.

We are also afraid that such mishandling of data can have the unintended consequence of the refusal of Haitian patients to participate in research studies at American Universities for the fear that they will be used as guinea pigs in the furtherance of biased scientific protocols and conclusions. That would be the saddest of ironies for we all need good science to help us all against this calamity.

“Science sans conscience n’est que ruine de l’âme”.

Christian Lauriston, MD
President of the Central Executive Committee of AMHE
**************

James Watson Retires After Racial Remarks
By CORNELIA DEAN, New York Times, October 25, 2007

James D. Watson, the eminent biologist who ignited an uproar last week with remarks about the intelligence of people of African descent, retired today as chancellor of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island and from its board.

In a statement, he noted that, at 79, he is “overdue” to surrender leadership positions at the lab, which he joined as director in 1968 and served as president until 2003. But he said the circumstances of his resignation “are not those which I could ever have anticipated or desired.”

Dr. Watson, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for describing the double-helix structure of DNA, and later headed the American government’s part in the international Human Genome Project, was quoted in The Times of London last week as suggesting that, overall, people of African descent are not as intelligent as people of European descent. In the ensuing uproar, he issued a statement apologizing “unreservedly” for the comments, adding “there is no scientific basis for such a belief.”

But Dr. Watson, who has a reputation for making sometimes incendiary off-the-cuff remarks, did not say he had been misquoted.

Within days, the Cold Spring board had relieved him of the administrative responsibilities of the chancellor’s job. In that position, a spokesman for the laboratory said, he was most involved with educational efforts and fund-raising.
Rockefeller University has cancelled a lecture Dr. Watson was to have given Wednesday at a ceremony honoring him and “The Double Helix,” the book he wrote about the elucidation of DNA.

“There were some members of the university community who had expressed reservations about Dr. Watson coming here to speak after the controversy over his remarks in the U.K.,” Joseph Bonner, Rockefeller’s director of communications, said today.

He said that just as its president, Paul Nurse, had decided to cancel the event, Dr. Watson called to suggest the same thing. Dr. Watson will receive the prize, the Lewis Thomas Award, at another time not yet set. The university gives the prize annually to scientists whose books bridge the gap between the laboratory and the wider world.

In the years after he left Harvard to direct the laboratory, Dr. Watson transformed it from a small facility into a world-class institution prominent in research on cancer, plant biology, neuroscience and computational biology, the board said in announcing his retirement. Bruce Stillman, who succeeded him as president, said today that he had created an “unparalleled” research environment at the laboratory.

In his statement, Dr. Watson said the work of the Human Genome Project, an international effort which deciphered the chemical contents of human genes, had opened the door to work on many diseases, particularly illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, ailments he said have afflicted members of his family.

He also referred to his Scots and Irish forebears, saying their lives were guided by faith in reason and social justice, “especially the need for those on top to help care for the less fortunate.”

 

The emergence of HIV/AIDS in the Americas and beyond M. Thomas P. Gilbert*†, Andrew Rambaut‡, Gabriela Wlasiuk*, Thomas J. Spira§, Arthur E. Pitchenik¶, and Michael Worobey*(Go to pdf for entire report)

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